Ada 13 jenis text dalam Bahasa Inggris. Berikut akan dibahas mengenai pengertian, fungsi, generic structure serta contoh textnya. ke – 13 text tersebut adalah sebagai berikut :
- Narrative text
- News Item
- Analytical Exposition
- Hortatory Exposition
The social function:
The purpose of narrative text is to entertain, to tell a story or to provide an aesthetic literary experience. Narrative text is based on life experience and is person-oriented using dialogue and familiar language.
Narrative Text Types:
- Folk tiles (wonder tales, fables, legend. Myth and realistic tales)
- Mysteries, science fiction, and realistic fiction.
- Historical fiction
Analysis of Narrative Text Structure:
Orientation : Introduces main characters in setting of place and time.
Complication : Tells the problems of the story and how the main characters solve the problems.
Resolution : Tells the ending of the story.
Re-orientation/Coda : optional; provide a comment or moral value based on what has been learned from the story. (Not always)
Significant of the story:
- Focus specific and usually individualized participant.
- Use material processes, behavioral and verb process.
- Use temporal conjunction and temporal circumstances.
- Use past tense.
The purpose of this text is to inform the readers about event that important to be informed.
Characteristic of News Item:
- Provide short information in a headline.
- Use action verb such note, make, define, and so on.
- Use saying verb such said.
- Use adverb such the most endangered bird species in the world.
News Item Text Structure:
Newsworthy event(s) : main event.
Background event(s) : background of the event, people in the event, and place of the event.
Sources : Source of the information, it can be a comment of witness, experts’ opinion, and so on.
The social function of recount is to retell event or experience for the purpose of informing or entertaining.
The schematic structure of recount consists of:
Orientation : provides the setting and introduces participants. (who, when, where, what)
Event : tell what happened, in what sequence.
Reorientation: closure of event. Summarizes the events.
The language features used in recount are:
- Simple past tense.
- Specific information.
- Information about who, when, where, and what.
- Action verbs and linking verbs in the past tense.
Social Function of this text is to retells an event with a humorous twist.
The generic structure of a spoof text:
- Orientation : sets the scene.
- Event(s) : tell what happened.
- Twist : provides the punch line.
Language features of this text:
- Focus on individual participants.
- Use of material processes.
- Circumstances of time and place.
- Use of past tense.
Text Organization Jack and Napoleon Orientation Jack was a university student. He studied history. Event 1 At the end of his first year, his history professor failed him in his examinations and he was told to leave the university. Event 2 The next day, Jack’s father went to see the professor. He urged the professor to let Jack continue his studies in the following years. “He is a good boy,” said Jack’s father, “And if you let him pass this time, I’m sure he’ll improve a lot next year and pass the examination at the end of the year well.” Event 3 “No, no! That’s quite impossible”, replied the professor. “Do you know, last month I asked him when Napoleon died, and he could not answer it.” Twist “Please, Sir. Give him another chance,” said Jack’s father. “You see, we don’t subscribe any newspaper in our house, so none of us even knew that Napoleon was ill.”
Social function: to describe the way things are, reference to a range of natural, man-made and social phenomena in our environment.
The generic structure of report text:
General classification/statement: introduces the topic of the reports.
Description : provide details of topic such as physical appearance, behavior, landform and uses (typically organized in paragraph).
- Simple present tense is mostly used in the report text either in active sentences or passive sentences.
- The use of relational process such as: is, consist of, function as, derive from, to be classified into, to be identified, etc.
- The use of special nouns that denotes the characteristics of the thing such as: features, forms, functions, species, etc.
- The use of special technical terms such as: the part of body (e.g: brain, vein, vascular), the parts of the tree (e.g: stem, root, leaf, branch), the parts of machine (e.g: gear, bolt, etc)
- No temporal sequences are used. If there is (e.g first, second, third, the last, etc), it only indicates numbering not an event.
Text Organization Cheetahs General Classification Cheetahs are members of cats family and are the world’s fastest land animals. They in habit open grasslands and scrub in Africa, southern Asia and the Middle East. Description Cheetahs are often mistaken for leopards and have many similar features. Their distinguishing marks are the long, teardrop-shaped lines on each side of the nose from the corner of the eyes to the mouth.
The animals have muscular and powerful bodies which are aerodynamically perfect for short, fast runs. Their bendy backs keep the body flexible as they sprint. They can accelerate from standing to 40mph and three strides and to a full speed of 70mph within seconds. Cheetahs’ feet are like running shoes and have grips and spikes to dig into the ground. The grips are special ridges on the animals’ footpads and the claws act as spikes. These claws stay out all the time. This is different from other cats, whose claws tuck away in special sheaths in their paws.
Cheetahs are carnivores and eat gazelle and smell antelope. A long tail helps the cheetah keep its balance as it swerves after its prey, using large eyes that point forward to judge distance accurately. Once the cheetah has pounced, the victim is gripped by the throat to stop it breathing. However the cheetah has weak jaws and small teeth and cannot always protect its kills or its young, especially if tired out after a run.
Female cheetahs give birth to an average of three young that they rear by themselves. Once fully grown, the animals usually live alone, though males sometimes from small groups. Most cheetahs live about twelve years.
Cheetahs are now an endangered species and many conservationist are trying to help protect the habitats of these interesting creature.
Social Function: Descriptive text use to describe particular person, place or thing.
The generic structure of descriptive text:
Identification : identifies phenomenon to be described.
Description : describes parts, qualities and characteristics.
There is two kinds of exposition, they are Analytical Exposition and Hortatory Exposition.
Purpose of this text is to persuade the reader that something is an important matter.
Thesis : opinion of the writer.
- Point : restates main arguments outlined in preview.
- Elaboration : develops and support each point/argument.
Reiteration : restates writer’s position.
- Focus on generic human and non human participants.
- Use of simple present tense.
- Use of internal conjunction to state argument.
- Reasoning through causal conjunction or nominalization.
Purpose of this text is to persuade the reader or listener that something should or should not be the case.
Thesis : stating an issue of concern.
Arguments : giving reasons for concern.
Recommendation : statement about what should or should not to do.
Purpose of this text is to set forth an issue at least in two sides before giving conclusion or recommendation.
General structure of Discussion text:
Issue : problem/issue that will be discussed.
Argument for : opinion that support.
Argument against : opinion that against.
Conclusion/Recommendation : conclusion of the discussion.
The purpose of this text is to explain about the process or event that relate to science, social culture and so on.
General statement : general explanation.
Sequence explanation : explanation about process.
Conclusion : conclusion of the explanation.
The amount of water on Earth remains constant, but it is continually moving around the Earth and its atmosphere in a process called the water cycle. It exists as a liquid (water) in seas, rivers and clouds; it freezes into a solid (ice) as snow and hail; and also exists as an invisible gas in the air.
When the sun heats up water in rivers, lakes and seas, it changes from a liquid into a gas called water vapour, this process is known as evaporation. As the water vapour rises into the atmosphere, it cools and condenses and forms clouds. As the cloud droplets move around, they collide with each other and grow bigger. When they are3 heavy enough, they fall as rain, and the water flows back into rivers, lakes, and sees.
Social function of this text is to describe how something is accomplished through a sequence of actions or steps.
General structure of procedure text is:
Goal : the purpose of the steps.
Material : material that used in the steps.
Steps : series of steps oriented to achieve the goal.
The linguistic features of procedure:
- It focuses on generalized human agents.
- It uses simple present tense.
- It uses temporal conjunction like first, next, then, etc.
- It uses imperatives.
- It uses action verb.
Goal : How to serve instant noodle
Materials : noodle, 400cc water
Boil the noodles into 400cc of briskly water and simmer for 3 minutes.
Pour the seasoning and chili powder on a bowl while noodle is being cooked.
Pour the cooked noodle together with the soup into the bowl.
Mix well with all the seasonings.
Spread fried onion and noodles is ready to be served.
Purpose of this text is to give critic of something, event or art to the reader or listener such as about film, book, perform, or so on.
Characteristics of review:
- Focus on specific participant.
- Using adjective such bad, good, and so on.
- Using parable.
General Structure of Review:
Orientation : introduce something that will be explained.
Interpretive recount : point of view of the story.
Evaluation : evaluation.
Evaluate summation : summary.
Title : The Life of Riley the Cat
Author : Julie Akerson Chicos
Rating : Must Read!
Publisher : Trafford
Web page : www.trafford.com
Review by : Heather Froeschl
Meet Riley, a curious kitty who goes in search of discovering what it means to be a cat. Does he have a purpose like so many of those other creatures that he meets? Time will tell and in the meantime young readers will come to learn a thing or two themselves.
Riley first meets Simon the crow, who isn’t very kind when he tells Riley that cats don’t sound very important. This sets the plot in motion, and Riley comes to understand how spiders, bees, and beavers are all very useful creatures. When she meets a wise bat, named Bart, she learns the most important thing of all—that you have to look deep inside yourself to see what it is that you can do to make the world a better place.
Children will learn this lesson along with Riley, but will also come to see that everyone is important in some way and that being different isn’t a bad thing Back home, Riley is reminded of the most important job of all—being part of a loving family.
I highly recommend this book to every child, everywhere! The text is well-written, friendly and captivating, the characters are interesting, Riley is extremely lovable, and the illustrations are sweet and inviting. The messages of the book are appropriate and important for all children to learn. I would like to give a copy this book to every child I know, and one to every child I don’t know! Parents will be reading this book to their little ones time and time again, as it should be.
An anecdote is kind of text which deals with something unexpected or out of the ordinary. It usually contains some unusual or amusing incidents.
General structure of anecdote:
Abstract : signals the retelling of an unusual incident.
Orientation : sets the scene.
Crisis : provides details of the unusual incident.
Reaction : reacts to crisis.
Coda : reflects on or evaluates of the incidents (optional).
In writing of an anecdote, we use exclamations, rhetorical questions and intensifiers.
- Guess what happened!
- It was really amazing!
- It was really mad!
- Can you believe it?
- You know what?
- Scary, isn’t it?
General structure My Secret Alias Abstract Hi, I’m Jack Baner. I’m secret agent, but I’m here on vacation. Guess what happened to me. I almost forget my identity. Orientation I arrived at the airport in the afternoon. The flight was not really good. So I only had a little sleep. Nobody picked me up, so I took a taxi to the hotel. I asked the driver to take me to the hotel my agent had reserved. Crisis At the hotel I went directly to the receptionist desk. I told her that I had reserved a room. After a minute she looked at me and said that nobody had reserved under Jack Baner. And the hotel was full. I thought there was something wrong. But what could I do? Reaction Then I went to a public phone. I called my travel agent back at my country and told about my problem. I was surprised to know that the problem was so simple. They reserved a room at this hotel under Johny Goodbye, my alias. I am a secret agent, remember? Coda I was so embarrassed. I shouldn’t have forgotten my alias.