13 Pengertian dan Contoh Essay Text Lengkap

Mr Min

Ada 13 jenis text dalam Bahasa Inggris. Berikut akan dibahas mengenai pengertian, fungsi, generic structure serta contoh textnya. ke – 13 text tersebut adalah sebagai berikut :

  1. Narrative text
  2. News Item
  3. Recount
  4. Spoof
  5. Report
  6. Description
    Exposition :
  7. Analytical Exposition
  8. Hortatory Exposition
  9. Discussion
  10. Explanation
  11. Procedure
  12. Review
  13. Anecdote



The social function:

The purpose of narrative text is to entertain, to tell a story or to provide an aesthetic literary experience. Narrative text is based on life experience and is person-oriented using dialogue and familiar language.


Narrative Text Types:

  1. Folk tiles (wonder tales, fables, legend. Myth and realistic tales)
  2. Mysteries, science fiction, and realistic fiction.
  3. Fantasy
  4. Historical fiction


Analysis of Narrative Text Structure:

Orientation     : Introduces main characters in setting of place and time.

Complication : Tells the problems of the story and how the main characters solve the problems.

Resolution      : Tells the ending of the story.

Re-orientation/Coda  : optional; provide a comment or moral value based on what has been learned from the story. (Not always)


Significant of the story:

  1. Focus specific and usually individualized participant.
  2. Use material processes, behavioral and verb process.
  3. Use temporal conjunction and temporal circumstances.
  4. Use past tense.


13 Pengertian dan Contoh Essay Text Lengkap



Text Organization

The Smartest Animal


Once there was a farmer from Laos. Every morning and every evening, he ploughed his field with his buffalo.


One day, a tiger saw the farmer and his buffalo working. The tiger was surprised to see a big animal listen to a small animal. He wanted to know more about the buffalo and the man.


After the man went home, the tiger spoke to the buffalo. “You are so big and strong. Why do you do everything the man tells you?” the buffalo answered, “Oh the man is very intelligent.”


The Tiger Asked, “Can You Tell Me How Intelligent He Is?” “No, I Can’t Tell You,” Said The Buffalo. “But you can ask him” added buffalo.


So next day the tiger said to the man, “Can I see your intelligence?” But the man answered, “It at home.” “Can you go and get it?” asked the tiger. “Yes” said the man, “But I’m afraid you will kill my buffalo when I gone. Can I tie you to a tree?”


After the man tried the tiger to the tree, he didn’t go home to get his intelligence. He took his plough and hit the tiger. Then he said, “Now you know about my intelligence even you haven’t seen it.”



News Item

The purpose of this text is to inform the readers about event that important to be informed.

Characteristic of News Item:

  • Provide short information in a headline.
  • Use action verb such note, make, define, and so on.
  • Use saying verb such said.
  • Use adverb such the most endangered bird species in the world.

News Item Text Structure:

Newsworthy event(s)   : main event.

Background event(s)  : background of the event, people in the event, and place of the event.

Sources                            : Source of the information, it can be a comment of witness, experts’ opinion, and so on.



Government Reduces Freeport’s Output


Jakarta: Freeport-Mc-MoRan Cooper & Gold Inc., the world’s second-largest copper producer, had its maximum ore production permit in Indonesia cut 26 percent on environmental concerns.

“The government only approves a Freeport ore output this year of 220,000 tons a day to reduce the impact on the environment, “ Witoro S. Soelarno, head of mine inspection at the Energy and Mineral Resources Ministry, said. “The previous limit was 300,000 tons a day,” he said.

Phoenix-based Freeport produced on average 229,000 tons of copper and gold ore a day from its Grasberg mine in 2006.

Freeport’s copper ore output in the fourth quarter of 2007 fell to 926 million of recoverable pounds a year earlier, the company said on its Web site. Gold output in the quarter dropped to 186,000 of recoverable ounces from 544,000 of recoverable ounces, it said.—Bloomberg





The social function of recount is to retell event or experience for the purpose of informing or entertaining.


The schematic structure of recount consists of:

Orientation : provides the setting and introduces participants. (who, when, where, what)

Event        : tell what happened, in what sequence.

Reorientation: closure of event. Summarizes the events.


The language features used in recount are:

  • Simple past tense.
  • Specific information.
  • Information about who, when, where, and what.
  • Action verbs and linking verbs in the past tense.



Text Organization

On a Vacation


Mr. and Mrs. Sutanto went on a vacation to London. They saw their agent and booked their tickets. They went to the British Embassy to get visas to enter Britain. They had booked 14-day tour. This included travel and accommodation. They also included tours around London.

Event 1

They boarded a large Boeing 747. The flight was nearly fourteen hours. On the plane, the cabin crews were very friendly. They gave them food and drink. There was a film for their entertainment Mr. and Mrs. Sutanto had a very pleasant flight. They slept part of the way.

Event 2

On arrival in Heathrow Airport they had to go through Custom and Immigration. The officers were pleasant. They checked their documents carefully but their manners were very polite. They collected their bags and went to the London Welcome Desk. They arranged the transfer to the hotel.

Event 3

The hotel was a four-star well-known hotel. The room had a perfect view of the park. The room had its own bathroom and toilet. Instead of keys for the room, you instead a key-card to open the door. On the third floor there was a restaurant serving Asian food. They had a variety of food.


The two weeks went by very fast. At the end of the 14 days they were quite tired.



Social Function of this text is to retells an event with a humorous twist.

The generic structure of a spoof text:

  • Orientation : sets the scene.
  • Event(s) : tell what happened.
  • Twist             : provides the punch line.


Language features of this text:

  • Focus on individual participants.
  • Use of material processes.
  • Circumstances of time and place.
  • Use of past tense.



Text Organization Jack and Napoleon
Orientation Jack was a university student. He studied history.
Event 1 At the end of his first year, his history professor failed him in his examinations and he was told to leave the university.
Event 2 The next day, Jack’s father went to see the professor. He urged the professor to let Jack continue his studies in the following years. “He is a good boy,” said Jack’s father, “And if you let him pass this time, I’m sure he’ll improve a lot next year and pass the examination at the end of the year well.”
Event 3 “No, no! That’s quite impossible”, replied the professor. “Do you know, last month I asked him when Napoleon died, and he could not answer it.”
Twist “Please, Sir. Give him another chance,” said Jack’s father. “You see, we don’t subscribe any newspaper in our house, so none of us even knew that Napoleon was ill.”




Social function: to describe the way things are, reference to a range of natural, man-made and social phenomena in our environment.


The generic structure of report text:

General classification/statement: introduces the topic of the reports.

Description                                           : provide details of topic such as physical appearance, behavior, landform and uses (typically organized in paragraph).



  • Simple present tense is mostly used in the report text either in active sentences or passive sentences.
  • The use of relational process such as: is, consist of, function as, derive from, to be classified into, to be identified, etc.
  • The use of special nouns that denotes the characteristics of the thing such as: features, forms, functions, species, etc.
  • The use of special technical terms such as: the part of body (e.g: brain, vein, vascular), the parts of the tree (e.g: stem, root, leaf, branch), the parts of machine (e.g: gear, bolt, etc)
  • No temporal sequences are used. If there is (e.g first, second, third, the last, etc), it only indicates numbering not an event.



Text Organization Cheetahs
General Classification Cheetahs are members of cats family and are the world’s fastest land animals. They in habit open grasslands and scrub in Africa, southern Asia and the Middle East.
Description Cheetahs are often mistaken for leopards and have many similar features. Their distinguishing marks are the long, teardrop-shaped lines on each side of the nose from the corner of the eyes to the mouth.


The animals have muscular and powerful bodies which are aerodynamically perfect for short, fast runs. Their bendy backs keep the body flexible as they sprint. They can accelerate from standing to 40mph and three strides and to a full speed of 70mph within seconds. Cheetahs’ feet are like running shoes and have grips and spikes to dig into the ground. The grips are special ridges on the animals’ footpads and the claws act as spikes. These claws stay out all the time. This is different from other cats, whose claws tuck away in special sheaths in their paws.


Cheetahs are carnivores and eat gazelle and smell antelope. A long tail helps the cheetah keep its balance as it swerves after its prey, using large eyes that point forward to judge distance accurately. Once the cheetah has pounced, the victim is gripped by the throat to stop it breathing. However the cheetah has weak jaws and small teeth and cannot always protect its kills or its young, especially if tired out after a run.


Female cheetahs give birth to an average of three young that they rear by themselves. Once fully grown, the animals usually live alone, though males sometimes from small groups. Most cheetahs live about twelve years.


Cheetahs are now an endangered species and many conservationist are trying to help protect the habitats of these interesting creature.




Social Function: Descriptive text use to describe particular person, place or thing.


The generic structure of descriptive text:

Identification       : identifies phenomenon to be described.

Description            : describes parts, qualities and characteristics.



Text Organization

Dengue Fever


Dengue fever is one of the most dangerous diseases in the world.


Dengue fever is endemic in most of tropical countries of South Pacific, Asia, the Caribbean, the America and Africa.


This disease rapidly spreads in the most tropical urban areas of the world. It means people in these areas have high risks of inflection of the disease.


Dengue fever is caused by a virus. The virus is transmitted into humans by the bite of infected mosquitos, usually Aedes Aegepti. In other words, the disease cannot be spread directly from person to person.


The disease is characterized by higher fever, several headache, backache, joint and muscle pains. Sometimes, many patients get nausea, vomiting, and rash on arms, face and legs. There is no specific treatment of the disease.




There is two kinds of exposition, they are Analytical Exposition and Hortatory Exposition.


Analytical Exposition

Purpose of this text is to persuade the reader that something is an important matter.


Generic Structure:

Thesis                   : opinion of the writer.

Argument             :

  • Point : restates main arguments outlined in preview.
  • Elaboration : develops and support each point/argument.

Reiteration                       : restates writer’s position.


Significant features:

  • Focus on generic human and non human participants.
  • Use of simple present tense.
  • Use of internal conjunction to state argument.
  • Reasoning through causal conjunction or nominalization.



Generic Structure

The Limits on Economic Freedom


If a person can do what he wishes with own property, time, and energy, then economists say that he is “economically free”. In all communities, of course, limits are imposed upon the personal freedom of their citizens and these limits are in some cases very complex but in others relatively simple. All individuals are required to conform to the law made by their government.


Complete economic freedom of action can create great difficulties, because the freedoms exercised by various individuals often conflict. If citizens were completely free, some landowners might build factories in unsuitable places, while some factory owners might make their employees work too long each day. If they were completely free, workers might stop working when they got their first pay, and it could cause instability (unemployment, lost of production, etc.) in the whole economy of a country.


Laws related to economic conditions are sometimes concerned with contracts between employers and employees. Sometimes, they are concerned with workers’ health, wages, and pension, and sometimes with the locations of places of works.


Sometimes they protect the interests principally of the workers, while at other times they may be more beneficial and employers will depend very much upon the political and economic ideology adopted by the government, and may be biased towards employers and capital on the one hand, or workers and the problems of labour on the other hand.



Hortatory Exposition

Purpose of this text is to persuade the reader or listener that something should or should not be the case.


Text Organization:

Thesis                           : stating an issue of concern.

Arguments                 : giving reasons for concern.

Recommendation    : statement about what should or should not to do.



Text Organization

Letter to Editor:

Dear Editor,


We are writing to complain about ads on TV. There are so many ads, especially during our favorite programs. We think they should be stopped for a number of reasons.


First, ads are a nuisance. They go on for a long time and there are so many. Sometimes there seems to be too many ads in one program.


Second, ads are a bad influence on people. They try to encourage people to buy unhealthy food like beer, soft drink, candy and chips. And they make people want things they do not really need and cannot afford. It can lead to consumerism.


Finally, the people who make ads have too much say in what programs people watch. That is because they want to put all their ads on popular programs that a lot of people watch. Some programs that are not so popular get stopped because they do not attract enough ads, even though those programs may be someone’s favorite.


For those reasons, we think your TV station should stop showing ads. They interrupt programs. They are a bad influence on people, and they are sometimes put a stop to people’s favorite shows. We are sick of ads, and now we mostly watch other channels.





Purpose of this text is to set forth an issue at least in two sides before giving conclusion or recommendation.


General structure of Discussion text:

Issue                                 : problem/issue that will be discussed.

Argument for                 : opinion that support.

Argument against         : opinion that against.

Conclusion/Recommendation : conclusion of the discussion.



General structure

Giving Homework to Students


There are a lot of discussions as to whether children should be given homework or not.

Argument for

Some people claim that children do enough work in school already. They also argue that children have hobbies that they want to do after school, such as sports or music. A further point they make is that a lot of homework is pointless and doesn’t help the child learn at all.

Argument Against

However, there are also strong arguments against this point of view. Parents and teachers argue that it is important to find out whether children can work on their own without the support from the teacher. They say that the evening is a good time for children to sit down and think about what they have learned in school.


Furthermore, they claim that the school day is too short to get anything done that needs doing, and it makes sense to send home tasks like independent reading or further writing tasks that don’t need teacher’s support.


On balance, I think that some homework is a good idea, but it should be only given on the weekend when children have more time.





The purpose of this text is to explain about the process or event that relate to science, social culture and so on.


General structure:

General statement            : general explanation.

Sequence explanation    : explanation about process.

Conclusion                           : conclusion of the explanation.



The amount of water on Earth remains constant, but it is continually moving around the Earth and its atmosphere in a process called the water cycle. It exists as a liquid (water) in seas, rivers and clouds; it freezes into a solid (ice) as snow and hail; and also exists as an invisible gas in the air.


When the sun heats up water in rivers, lakes and seas, it changes from a liquid into a gas called water vapour, this process is known as evaporation. As the water vapour rises into the atmosphere, it cools and condenses and forms clouds. As the cloud droplets move around, they collide with each other and grow bigger. When they are3 heavy enough, they fall as rain, and the water flows back into rivers, lakes, and sees.




Social function of this text is to describe how something is accomplished through a sequence of actions or steps.


General structure of procedure text is:

Goal       : the purpose of the steps.

Material : material that used in the steps.
Steps      : series of steps oriented to achieve the goal.


The linguistic features of procedure:

  • It focuses on generalized human agents.
  • It uses simple present tense.
  • It uses temporal conjunction like first, next, then, etc.
  • It uses imperatives.
  • It uses action verb.




Goal       : How to serve instant noodle

Materials : noodle, 400cc water

Steps      :

  1. Boil the noodles into 400cc of briskly water and simmer for 3 minutes.

  2. Pour the seasoning and chili powder on a bowl while noodle is being cooked.

  3. Pour the cooked noodle together with the soup into the bowl.

  4. Mix well with all the seasonings.

  5. Spread fried onion and noodles is ready to be served.




Purpose of this text is to give critic of something, event or art to the reader or listener such as about film, book, perform, or so on.


Characteristics of review:

  • Focus on specific participant.
  • Using adjective such bad, good, and so on.
  • Using parable.


General Structure of Review:

Orientation                      : introduce something that will be explained.

Interpretive recount   : point of view of the story.

Evaluation                        : evaluation.

Evaluate summation     : summary.




Children’s books

Title       : The Life of Riley the Cat

Author   : Julie Akerson Chicos

Rating    : Must Read!

Publisher            : Trafford

Web page           : www.trafford.com

Review by         : Heather Froeschl


Meet Riley, a curious kitty who goes in search of discovering what it means to be a cat. Does he have a purpose like so many of those other creatures that he meets? Time will tell and in the meantime young readers will come to learn a thing or two themselves.

Riley first meets Simon the crow, who isn’t very kind when he tells Riley that cats don’t sound very important. This sets the plot in motion, and Riley comes to understand how spiders, bees, and beavers are all very useful creatures. When she meets a wise bat, named Bart, she learns the most important thing of all—that you have to look deep inside yourself to see what it is that you can do to make the world a better place.


Children will learn this lesson along with Riley, but will also come to see that everyone is important in some way and that being different isn’t a bad thing Back home, Riley is reminded of the most important job of all—being part of a loving family.


I highly recommend this book to every child, everywhere! The text is well-written, friendly and captivating, the characters are interesting, Riley is extremely lovable, and the illustrations are sweet and inviting. The messages of the book are appropriate and important for all children to learn. I would like to give a copy this book to every child I know, and one to every child I don’t know! Parents will be reading this book to their little ones time and time again, as it should be.




An anecdote is kind of text which deals with something unexpected or out of the ordinary. It usually contains some unusual or amusing incidents.


General structure of anecdote:

Abstract      : signals the retelling of an unusual incident.

Orientation : sets the scene.

Crisis             : provides details of the unusual incident.

Reaction       : reacts to crisis.

Coda               : reflects on or evaluates of the incidents (optional).


In writing of an anecdote, we use exclamations, rhetorical questions and intensifiers.


  • Guess what happened!
  • It was really amazing!
  • It was really mad!


Rhetorical questions:

  • Can you believe it?
  • You know what?
  • Scary, isn’t it?



  • Very
  • Extremely
  • Really



General structure My Secret Alias
Abstract Hi, I’m Jack Baner. I’m secret agent, but I’m here on vacation. Guess what happened to me. I almost forget my identity.
Orientation I arrived at the airport in the afternoon. The flight was not really good. So I only had a little sleep. Nobody picked me up, so I took a taxi to the hotel. I asked the driver to take me to the hotel my agent had reserved.
Crisis At the hotel I went directly to the receptionist desk. I told her that I had reserved a room. After a minute she looked at me and said that nobody had reserved under Jack Baner. And the hotel was full. I thought there was something wrong. But what could I do?
Reaction Then I went to a public phone. I called my travel agent back at my country and told about my problem. I was surprised to know that the problem was so simple. They reserved a room at this hotel under Johny Goodbye, my alias. I am a secret agent, remember?
Coda I was so embarrassed. I shouldn’t have forgotten my alias.