Salam Semangat Pembaca. Bagi yang sudah pernah mengunjungi laman ini dan membaca kumpulan soal SIPENMARU POLTEKES sesion pertama, bagaimana sudah ada gambaran kan tentang model soal – soalnya? Nah sekarang waktunya menambahkan lagi sedikit demi sedikit perbendaharan kata dan jenis – jenis soal kita agar kita semakin siap menggilas soal SIPENMARU POLTEKES dengan gagah berani. 🙂
Read the passages carefully and choose one correct answer for each question that follows them.
Yawning (menguap) may activate a sinus (lubang yg menghubungkan rongga hidung & batok kepala) “pump” that ventilates our brains. Yawning may help you keep a cool head—literally (arti sesungguhnya), a new study suggests. The findings might hold some hope for sufferers of insomnia, migraines, and even epilepsy.
Though scientists have put forth various theories for yawning—from fatigue to lack of oxygen—none have held up to scrutiny (serious research). “We can put a man on the moon, but we do not understand what the function of yawning is,” said study co-author Gary Hack, of the University of Maryland School of Dentistry in Baltimore.
Now, Hack and co-author Andrew Gallup, of Princeton University, propose that yawning causes the walls of the maxillary (rahang atas di bawah hidung) sinus to expand and contract like a bellows, pumping air onto the brain, which lowers its temperature. Located in our cheekbones, the maxillary are the largest of four pairs of sinus cavities (rongga) in the human head.
Like a computer, the human brain is “exquisitely” (secara elok) sensitive to temperature and must stay cool to work efficiently, said Hack, whose previously collected data was combined with Gallup’s in the new study, recently published in the journal Medical Hypotheses.
In addition to potentially solving the mystery of yawning, the study may also reveal why we have sinuses, whose existence has also stumped (membingungkan) scientists. It’s a “unified theory tying yawning, sinus ventilation, and brain cooling into a neat little package,” Hack said.
Ryan Soose—an ear, nose, and throat doctor as well as director of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center’s Division of Sleep Surgery—added, “The hypothesis that these two relatively unknown things may be directly related, to me, is very intriguing (membangkitkan minat).”
1. What is the similarity between computer and human brain as the passage suggest?
A. Both computer and human brain can work extra hours.
B. Both computer and human brain are sensitive to temperature and need to stay cool to work efficiently.
C. Both computer and human brain are intricate and hard to understand.
D. Both computer and human brain are susceptible to damage.
E. Both computer and human brain are specially designed to deal with complicated tasks.
2. According to the passage, it is incorrect that…
A. there are other four pairs of sinus cavities besides the maxillary.*
B. Hack collected his data before Gallup did.
C. theories for yawning have not been investigated thoroughly and carefully.
D. the findings of the new study may bring positive implications for the cures for other disorders.
E. the study proposes the function of yawning as a brain cooling mechanism.
3. We may assume from the passage that the new study…
A. has not been really certain about the reason behind yawning.*
B. reveals new cures for insomnia, migraines, and epilepsy.
C. opposes what most scientists believe about yawning.
D. was published in more than five medical journals.
E. comprises two sets of data from two scientists from the same university.
4. Which of the following is the synonym of the word ‘stumped’ in the fifth paragraph?
D. stumbled (tersandung / Blunder)
E. conjugated (menghubungkan)
5. How was Ryan Soose’s response to the hypothesis proposed by Hack’s and Gallup’s study?
A. He was skeptical.
B. He was fascinated.*
C. He showed no respect.
D. He was bewildered (bingung).
E. He took neutral stance (pendirian).
While Fukushima is not the world’s worst nuclear accident (Chernobyl holds that dubious (meragukan) distinction having leaked (bocor) about 10 times more radioactive material into the environment than Fukushima), there is plenty of fallout from the Japanese disaster still playing out.
Perhaps the greatest enduring (abadi) tragedy is what’s been transpiring (berlangsung) in the 12 miles surrounding the Fukushima plants. Some 80,000 people have had to abandon their homes because of radiation contamination, and it’s estimated that it will be more than 20 years before the land will be habitable for humans. That’s a lot of real estate for a small nation of islands to give up.
Another set of problems stems (berakar) from the nuclear plants themselves. Completely dismantling (pembongkaran) them is projected to take 30–40 years. And while authorities seemed to have passed a major milestone (important thing) last December, their announced cold shutdown (a technical term normally describing the safe and stable conditions in an intact (complete) nuclear reactor fuel core deemed (dianggap) necessary to prevent a chain (rentetan) reaction) was anything but normal. Although temperatures in the reactors had fallen below the 100-degree Celsius cutoff necessary for a cold shutdown, more than a hundred thousand gallons of water have had to be injected into the reactors daily to keep things copacetic (very satisfactory). Even so, as recently as last month, radiation was discovered leaking from the plant.
Since the disaster, the Japanese nuclear industry has been in free fall. In the aftermath (effect) of the natural disasters and subsequent (berikutnya) meltdown, all but two of the country’s 51 nuclear plants were shut down; the two still operating are scheduled to cease operation in late April. Following the accident, then-Prime Minister Naoto Kan pledged a nuclear-energy-free Japan. However, Yoshihiko Noda, Japan’s current prime minister, acknowledging (mengakui) in one breath “that the government shared the blame for the disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant,” in another indicated a desire to get the country back on the nuclear-energy track.
6. Which one, as the passage suggests, is the resulting effect of Fukushima nuclear accident?
A. The 12-mile radius surrounding the Fukushima plants becomes a dangerous place to live in.*
B. The removal of Prime Minister Naoto Kan from office.
C. About 80,000 people have had to abandon their homes in Tokyo.
D. The decline of Japan’s real estate business.
E. Around a hundred thousand gallons of water needs to be removed from the reactors everyday.
7. The third paragraph particularly discusses…
A. the 100-degree Celsius cutoff necessary for a cold shutdown.
B. the amount of radiation discovered leaking from the plants last month.
C. the process of injecting a hundred thousand gallons of water into the reactors.
D. the uncertainty in the continuation of the Japanese nuclear program.
E. the problems concerning the nuclear plants after the accident.*
8. Fallout is…
A. process of falling
C. radioactive dust*
D. seawater from a tsunami
E. nuclear energy
9. From the last paragraph it is assumed that the Japanese government…
A. show great determination to completely end their nuclear energy program.
B. refuse to accept any blame for the nuclear accident.
C. have insufficient reactors for generating electricity after the accident.
D. will probably continue their nuclear energy program.*
E. accuse their country’s nuclear industry of using unsafe procedures.
10. Which one is the closest meaning to the word ‘enduring’ in paragraph 2?